It has atmospheric mechanisms that they determine the climates of all a planetary zone, as is the case of the intense solar radiation (insolation) in the low latitudes of the intertropical zone. The climate can be studied by means of two dimensions: space and secular, both being employees, in general way, in the most varied studies. The space scales gain greater have detached in the geographic boarding of the climate, being the most known: macroclimatic, mesoclimtica and microclimatic; the used secular scales more are: geologic, historical and contemporary. The microclimate is inserted in mesoclima, that, in turn, he is inserted in the macroclimate; this only exists with base but inferior largenesses. The scale contemporary is overlapped in the historical one, that it is overlapped in the geologic one and vice versa. Space scales of the climate Macroclima, or regional climate, that corresponds to the average climate ocorrente in a relatively vast territory, demanding, for its characterization, given of a set of meteorological ranks; in zones with accented relief the macroclimatic data only possess a relative value, especially under the agricultural aspect. Inversely, one exactly macroclimate will be able to englobar very extensive plain areas.
Mesoclima: unit would intermediate enters the upper/lower largeness of the climate. Forests, extensive deserts or prairies etc. are examples of this subunidade. The extension of mesoclima is sufficiently changeable, being more defined the subunidades local climate and topoclima, that if the km sets of ten fit of km , while regional climate if points out in superior dimensions to this. Microclimate: she is the minor and more inexact unit to scale climatic, its extension can go of some cm until some sets of ten of m. The factors that define this unit say respect to the turbulent movement of air in the surface (tertiary circulation), the determined obstacles to the circulation of air, the details of use and the occupation of the ground, among others. Constructions (a classroom, an apartment), the climate of the street, the side of a lake, etc.
secular Scales of the climate geologic Scale: in this type of scale if they study the climatic phenomena that had occurred in the Planet since its formation. On studies to the Paleoclimatologia are developed, that is, studies of the climates of the past. This scale allows the identification of previous environments terrestrial to the appearance of the man, and is inside of this scale that if behind identifies the variation of the climate in hundreds of millions of years. Historical scale: it studies the climate of the past, however only of the period of the history registered for the man. Trips, descriptions, drawings in the caves, assist in the study of the climate in historical scale. Scale contemporary: it scales where the majority of the climatlogos works currently. Meteorological stations contribute with its data for the study in scale contemporary. The countries only count on necessary data, of long time and trustworthy, therefore in Brazil the arrival of these stations alone occurred in 1950. The geologic and historical scales are important in the study of the climate, them are complementary, however he is one of the factors most excellent for the good development of the works.